I was first introduced to F. Alton Everest’s classic a few years ago in an audio class at work.
The book has exercises to help you identify specific frequencies in sound, the accompanying CD has sounds at those frequencies – you have to use both together.
There are also examples of distortion and other audio anomalies you might encounter.
From the product description:
The ability to instantly identify frequencies, hear hidden distortions, and instinctively reconcile conflicts in the EQ of instruments, audio elements, vocals and more are traits of those who have mastered the art of audio production. The best engineers have trained their ears to immediately recognize audio problems that the consumer and those new to recording arts would likely not hear, but that, if left unresolved, would result in an amateurish final product.